Disciplinary Consequence Assignment Differences by Student Ethnicity/Race and Gender: A Texas Statewide Investigation
Mikia J. Barnes, John R. Slate, George W. Moore, Cynthia Martinez-Garcia
Examined in this study was the extent to which differences were present in discipline consequence assignments to girls and to boys by their ethnicity/race (i.e., Black, Hispanic, White, and Asian). Statewide data were obtained from the Texas Education Agency Public Education Information Management System on all middle school students for the 2013-2014, 2014-2015, and 2015-2016 school years. For all three school years, inferential statistical procedures yielded statistically significant differences. Black boys and Black girls received statistically significantly higher rates of in-school suspension and out-of-school suspension than Hispanic, White, and Asian boys and girls. Hispanic boys and Hispanic girls received statistically significantly higher rates of in-school suspension and out-of-school suspension than White and Asian boys and girls. Implications are discussed and suggestions for policy and practice are made.
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